Type 2 diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that affects the way the body metabolizes sugar. Diabetics have high blood glucose, insulin deficiency or are resistant to insulin. This means that the organism either doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain proper glucose levels or resists the effect of the hormone. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is characterized by insulin deficiency caused by the destruction of some pancreatic cells called islet cells. Type 2 diabetes represents almost 90% of all cases of diabetes, with the other 10% caused by gestational diabetes and Diabetes mellitus type 1. Today there are about 285 million diagnosed patients compared to 1985 when only 30 million people suffered from the disease.
- Prevention and management
The best way to prevent type 2 diabetes is through psychical exercise and a proper nutrition. Obesity is considered the main cause for the development of the disorder in people genetically predisposes, so weight loss is the first step to take. Lifestyle interventions are more effective than medication with acarbose or metformin, used to decrease the risk of developing the disease. A proper type 2 diabetes diet has proven beneficial for prevention as well as management, because it lowers the associated cardiovascular risks and maintains a balanced glucose level in the bloodstream. The British National Health Service recommends the self-monitoring of glucose levels . The management of intensive blood pressure results in a decreased stroke risk
- The Dunkan diet
Also known as the princess diet, the Dunkan diet is a protein-based diet with 100 allowed foods created by Pierre Dunkan, a French physician. There are four phases the patients must follow. The attack phase aims to rapidly reduce weight by kick-starting the metabolic system. About 2 to 3 kilograms are lost in 2-3 days. The cruise phase is based on the consumption of protein rich foods and 26 specific vegetables. Carbs in food are maintained at an acceptable level and almost 1 kilogram is lost per week. The next phase, consolidation prevents future weight gain by reintroducing cheese, starchy foods and fruit to the diet. Two rich meals are allowed during a week. The last step, the stabilization phase allows dieters to consume whatever food they desire. A few rules must be followed to prevent weight gain: eating oat bran every day, exercising and protein day once a week.
- The Atkins diet
Oficially called the Atkins Nutritional Approach, this diet appeared in a research paper published in 1958 by Dr. Alfred W. Pennington titled “WEIGHT REDUCTION”. Robert Atkins promotes this low-carbohydrate diet. He used the study to lose weight and because it was effective, he decided to make it popular. Several books were published with information about the diet and improvements made to it every year.